References & Research - Ao Skincare

Actinidia Chinensis (Kiwi) Seed Oil: Deters, A., Schroder, K., & Hensel, A. (2005). Kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensis L.) polysaccharides exert stimulating effects on cell proliferation via enhanced growth factor receptors, energy production, and collagen synthesis of human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and skin equivalents. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 717-722. Yu, R., & Scott, E. (2004). Alpha-hydroxyacids and carboxylic acids. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 3(2), 76-87.  

Algae Extract:  

Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice: Dal'belo, S., Gaspar, L., & Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves Maia Campos. (2006). Moisturizing effect of cosmetic formulations containing Aloe vera extract in different concentrations assessed by skin bioengineering techniques. Skin Research and Technology, 12(4), 241-246.  

Arctostaphylos Uva Ursi (Barberry) Leaf Extract:;  

Artemisia Vulgaris (Mugwort) Extract:  

Astaxanthin: Kleinová, M., Hewitt, M., Brezová, V., Madden, J., Cronin, M., Valko, & M. (2007). Antioxidant properties of carotenoids: QSAR prediction of their redox potentials. General Physiology & Biophyicss, 26(2), 97-103. Niwano, T., Terazawa, S., Nakajima, H., Wakabayashi, Y., & Imokawa, G. (2015). Astaxanthin and withaferin A block paracrine cytokine interactions between UVB-exposed human keratinocytes and human melanocytes via the attenuation of endothelin-1 secretion and its downstream intracellular signaling. Cytokine, 72(2), 184-197.  

Bakuchiol: RSource: International Journal of Cosmetic Science, June 2014, 221-230.  

Benzyl Alcohol: Schnuch, A., Mildau, G., Kratz, E., & Uter, W. (2011). Risk of sensitization to preservatives estimated on the basis of patch test data and exposure, according to a sample of 3541 leave-on products. Contact Dermatitis, 65(3), 167-174. Nair, B. (2001). Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Benzyl Alcohol, Benzoic Acid, and Sodium Benzoate. UITO International Journal of Toxicology, 20(53), 23-50.  

Bisabolol: Maurya, A., Singh, M., Dubey, V., Srivastava, S., Luqman, S., & Bawankule, D. (2014). α-(-)-bisabolol Reduces Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production and Ameliorates Skin Inflammation. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology CPB, 15(2), 173-181.  

Bis (Tripeptide-1) Copper Acetate: Gorouhi, F., & Maibach, H.I. (2009). Role of topical peptides in preventing and treating aged skin. International Journal of Cosmetic Science. 31: 327–345. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2494.2009.00490.  

Butylene Glycol:  

Camellia Sinensis (Green Tea) Leaf Extract: Heinrich, U., Moore, C., Spirt, S., Tronnier, H., & Stahl, W. (2011). Green Tea Polyphenols Provide Photoprotection, Increase Microcirculation, and Modulate Skin Properties of Women. Journal of Nutrition, 141(6), 1202-1208. Katiyar, S., Afaq, F., Perez, A., & Mukhtar, H. (2001). Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment of human skin inhibits ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative stress. Carcinogenesis, 22(2), 287-294.  

Carrageenan: Shih, M., & Cherng, J. (2008). Potential protective effect of fresh grown unicellular green algae component (resilient factor) against PMA- and UVB-induced MMP1 expression in skin fibroblasts. Euopean Journal of Dermatology. 18(3), 303-307. Rupérez, P., Ahrazem, O., Leal, J. (2002) Potential Antioxidant Capacity of Sulfated Polysaccharides from the Edible Marine Brown Seaweed Fucus vesiculosus. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 50(4), 840-845.  

Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil: Yang, D., Pornpattananangkul, D., Nakatsuji, T., Chan, M., Carson, D., Huang, C., & Zhang, L. (2009). The antimicrobial activity of liposomal lauric acids against Propionibacterium acnes. Biomaterials. 30(30), 6035-6040.  

Corn Starch Modified:  

Crithmum Maritimum Callus (Sea Fennel) Culture Filtrate: Caucanas M., Montastier, C., Piérard, GE., & Quatresooz, P. (2011). Dynamics of skin barrier repair following preconditioning by a biotechnology-driven extract from samphire (Crithmum maritimum) stem cells. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology. 10, 288–293.  

Cyathea Cumingii (New Zealand Tree Fern) Leaf Extract:  

Dehydroacetic Acid:  

Disodium EDTA: Lanigan, RS., & Yamarik, TA. (2002). Final report on the safety assessment of EDTA, calcium disodium EDTA, diammonium EDTA, dipotassium EDTA, disodium EDTA, TEA-EDTA, tetrasodium EDTA, tripotassium EDTA, trisodium EDTA, HEDTA, and trisodium HEDTA. The International Journal of Toxicology. 21 (Supplement 2), 95-142. European Commission Directorate General for Health and Consumers. Cosmetic Ingredient Glossary; Substance: Disodium EDTA. (Cited September 2015). Available from:  


Ferulic Acid: Zhang, L., Al-Suwayeh, S., Hsieh, P., & Fang, J. (2010). A comparison of skin delivery of ferulic acid and its derivatives: evaluation of their efficacy and safety. Interanational Journal of Pharmacy. 399(1-2), 44-51  

Gardenia Jasminoides Meristem Cell Culture: Glycine Soja (Soybean) Sterols:  


Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice) Root Extract: Davis, E., & Callender, V. (2010). Postinflammatory Hyperpigmentation. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 3(7), 20-3.  

Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Wax: Danby, S., Al Enezi, T., Sultan, A., Lavender, T., Chittock, J., Brown, K., & Cork, M. (2013). Effect of Olive and Sunflower Seed Oil on the Adult Skin Barrier: Implications for Neonatal Skin Care. Pediatric Dermatology. 30(1), 42-50.  

Hydrolyzed Keratin:  

Hydrolyzed Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Esters:;;  

Isostearic Acid: Free Radical Research. (April 2002). 471–477. Journal of Lipid Research. (May 2002). 794–804.  

Lactic Acid: Babilas. P., Knie, U., & Abels, C. (2012). Cosmetic and dermatologic use of alpha hydroxy acids. Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft's. 10(7), 488-91.  

Lanolin: Kligman, A. (1983). Lanolin allergy: Crisis or comedy. Contact Dermatitis, 9(2), 99-107. Wakelin, S., Smith, H., White, I., Rycroft, R., & Mcfadden, J. (2001). A retrospective analysis of contact allergy to lanolin. British Journal of Dermatology, 145(1), 28-31.  

Lecithin: Fiume, Z. (2001). Final report on the safety assessment of Lecithin and Hydrogenated Lecithin. International Journal of Toxicology. 20(S1),21-45.  

Lilium Candidum (Madonna Lily) Leaf Cell Extract:  

Linoleic Acid: Ando, H., Ryu, A., Hashimoto, A., Oka, M., & Ichihashi, M. (1998). Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid lightens ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation of the skin. Archives of Dermatological Research. 290(7), 375-381. Letaw,e C., Boone, M., & Piérard, G. (1998). Digital image analysis of the effect of topically applied linoleic acid on acne microcomedones. Clinical & Experimental Dermatology. 23(2), 56-58. Valdman-Grinshpoun, Y., Ben-Amitai, D.,& Zvulunov, A. (2012). Barrier-Restoring Therapies in Atopic Dermatitis: Current Approaches and Future Perspectives. Dermatology Research & Practice. 2012:923134.  

Manuka Honey:  

Narcissus Tazetta Bulb Extract:  

Niacinamide: Trookman, N., Rizer, R., Ford, R., Ho, E., & Gotz, V. (2009). Immediate and Long-term Clinical Benefits of a Topical Treatment for Facial Lines and Wrinkles. Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology. 2(3), 38-43.  

Olea Europaea (Olive) Leaf Extract: Fuad Al-rimawi, Prof., Imad Odeh, Abdallah Bisher, Hiba Yateem, and Mohammad Taraweh. Qatar Foundation Annual Research Conference Proceedings. (2014). Natural Antioxidants, Antibacterials From Olive Leaf Extracts Used In Cosmetics, Pharmaceutical, And Food Industries. HBPP0116.  

Palmitoyl Tripeptide-37:  Panthenol: Bisset, Donald L. (2009). Common cosmeceuticals. Clinics in Dermatology. 27, 435-445.  

Pichia/Resveratrol Ferment Extract:  

Polyglyceryl-3 Polyricinoleate:;  

Phormium Tenax (Harakeke) Seed Oil:  


Punica Granatum (Pomegranate) Extract: Fowler, Jr. J., Woolery-Lloyd, H., Waldorf, H., & Saini, R. (2010). Innovations in natural ingredients and their use in skin care. Journal of Drugs & Dermatology. 9(S6), S72-81. Baumann, L., Woolery-Lloyd, H., & Friedman, A. (2009). “Natural” ingredients in cosmetic dermatology. Journal of Drugs & Dermatology. 8(S6), S5-9. Noda, Y., Kaneyuki, T., Mori, A., & Packer, L. (2002). Antioxidant activities of pomegranate fruit extract and its anthocyanidins: delphinidin; cyanidin; and pelargonidin. Journal of Agriculture, Food & Chemistry. 50(1), 166-71.  



Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil: Patzel, A., Lademann, J., Richter, H., Darvin, M., Schanzer, S., Thiede, G., Sterry, W., Vergou, T., & Hauser, M. (2012). In vivo investigations on the penetration of various oils and their influence on the skin barrier. Skin Res Technol. 18(3), 364-9. Ranzato, E., Martinotti, S., & Burlando, B. (2011). Wound healing properties of jojoba liquid wax: an in vitro study. J Ethnopharmacol. 134(2), 443-449. Pazyar, N., Yaghoobi, R., Ghassemi, M., Kazerouni, A., Rafeie, E., Jamshydian, N. (2013). Jojoba in dermatology: a succinct review. Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia Venereologia. 148(6), 687-691.  

Sodium Ascorbal Phosphate: Carlotti, M., Ugazio, E., Gastaldi, L., Sapino, S., Vione, D., Fenoglio, I., & Fubini, B. Specific effects of single antioxidants in the lipid peroxidation caused by nano-titania used in sunscreen lotions. (2009). Journal Photochemistry & Photobiology B. 96(2), 130-5. Segall, A., & Moyano, M. Stability of Vitamin C derivatives in topical formulations containing lipoic acid, Vitamins A and E. (2008). International Journal of Cosmetic Science. 30(6), 453-8.  

Sodium Hyaluronate: Schlesinger, T., & Rowland, P. (2012). Efficacy and safety of a low-molecular weight hyaluronic Acid topical gel in the treatment of facial seborrheic dermatitis. Journal Clinical Aesthetic Dermatology. 5(10), 20-3.  

Sodium Polyacrylate:  

Stearic Acid: Free Radical Research, April 2002, pages 471–477; and Journal of Lipid Research, May 2002, pages 794–804).  

Sucrose Laurate: Ahmad, M. & Xu, X. (2015). Polar Lipids: Biology, Chemistry and Technology.  

Sucrose Palmitate:  

Sucrose Stearate:;  

Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate: Fitzpatrick Richard E., MD., & Rostan Elizabeth F., MD. (March 2002). Double Blind, Half-Face Study Comparing Topical Vitamin C and Vehicle for Rejuvenation of Photodamage. Dermatologic Surgery. Volume 28, Issue 3pages 231-236.  


Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Seed Extract:  

Xanthan Gum:  

Zinc Oxide:;

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